Cartographic trick of the day
This is a short post to share some techniques I came up with while implementing compositing and image filtering in Mapnik core.
Text rendered on top of a ‘busy’ map can become difficult to read, it can make colours appear heavy. One use-case would be place names on top of a dense road network, another text on top of height contours.
Consider the following map generated with :
(I modified text size to be 14px for clarity)
As you can see, dark text interferes with dark-ish minor roads and also casings on bigger roads.
One way to address this is to use text halos :
Now we have nice ‘punchy’ text but the rest of the features are getting overwhelmed. This is a sub-optimal solution, though, as halos saturate the image and attract far to much attention to the text items. What we really want is to punch-out the interfering layers around the text but leave the background intact.
This is better - now we have a map that is lighter on the eye and the text is easier to read. After all, this is the main purpose of a map - to convey information to the user.
Note that province and water polygons are underneath halos, while roads have been removed.
So how can we achieve this in Mapnik?
This is a well known cartographic issue and the solution in the paleo-geo world is referred to as “variable-depth masking”. I call it ‘smart-halo’ but the principle is the same.
There are possibly multiple ways to solve this, but here is one solution based on recent ‘compositing’ work I was concentrating on in Mapnik.
So here are step-by-step maps demonstrating the process.
1) We start with an empty map with fully transparent background - ‘transparent’ named colour or rgba(0,0,0,0). Then we render roads in the usual way.
NOTE: black background is due to conversion to JPEG format which doesn’t support alpha channel. It should appear as white
2) Right after roads we insert ‘smart-halo’ layer with the following style
<Style name="smart-halo" comp-op="dst_out"> <Rule> <TextSymbolizer face-name="DejaVu Sans Book" halo-radius="3" halo-fill="white" fill="white" size="14">[GEONAME]</TextSymbolizer> </Rule> </Style>
We use ‘dst_out’ compositing mode on this style to ‘punch-out’ roads or any other previously rendered objects.
3) Now we add provinces and water polygons using “dst_over” compositing operator, e.g for water polygons:
<PolygonSymbolizer fill="rgb(153,204,255)" fill-opacity="1.0" smooth="0.7" comp-op="dst_over"/>
4) And finally we render text and there you have it - smart-halos :D
Posted by Artem Pavlenko on 20 April 2012.